Alcatraz 囚犯 1518-AZ

 

迈耶·哈里斯"米奇"科恩(1913年9月4日–1976年7月29日)是一个黑帮总部设在洛杉矶和犹太黑手党的一部分。从20世纪30年代到60年代,他还与美国黑手党关系密切。科恩的囚犯案件文件,在他的时间 Alcatraz ,亚特兰大和麦克尼尔岛联邦监狱,提供了详细的背景,包括家谱,直接从科恩在采访中提供。

承诺的名字: 科恩,梅耶-哈里斯COHEN, Meyer Harris 登记号:1518-AZ 日期:1962年12月13日

洛杉矶消息:这位49岁的加州洛杉矶居民,1961年7月1日在洛杉矶因企图逃避和骗取所得税而被判处15年监禁。他直接致力于 Alcatraz 1961年7月28日,1961年10月17日以上诉债券形式发行。1962年5月8日,他被交还羁押,刑期202天,不工作,并返回 Alcatraz 1962年5月14日1967年1月18日,他有资格获得假释,强制释放日期是1972年2月14日。

社会信息:科恩每月收到两次访问,从他的兄弟,哈利科恩,从奥克兰,加利福尼亚州和他的女朋友,克拉拉塔哈哈根,从拉斯维加斯,内华达州轮流访问。他还多次拜访他的律师。他经常与来自加州洛杉矶的哥哥、女友和妹妹莉莉安·魏默通信,偶尔还与朋友安倍·菲利普斯和埃德·特拉舍尔通信。他在写作上颇有多产,多次受到违反通信条例的警告。他的个人账户有335.05美元。

机构调整:没有好时机突出,因为他有明确的行为记录。在他回到 Alcatraz 1962年5月24日,他被指派到服装室工作,并在那里工作。他的工作主管报告说,他是一个非常好的工人,因为他担心做自己的工作,因为害怕有人会认为他没有承担他的份额,并骑在他的名字。在牢房里,他对军官非常合作和礼貌。他保留着牢房里最整洁的牢房之一,只要有可能就去院子里,似乎已经很好地适应了他的处境。他很有倾向,是个包鼠。

在细胞之家,科恩被报道做了很好的调整,并花了他的时间在许多活动,与打牌头名单。他被认为对囚犯没有任何麻烦,也不值得特别考虑。面对规章制度,他遵守了规章制度。牢房的军官说,"这个人很善于得到他想要的东西,以任何方式向他开放。科恩是犹太信仰的成员,并定期参加此类仪式。新教牧师说,科恩有一些个人咨询,似乎做了更好的调整,并与牧师友好合作。

根据他从机构图书馆借到的书本,他读了一大笔钱。材料包括一般作品书籍、体育书籍、科学(数学)、诗歌、更好的言语和英语、哲学、旅行、人物、传记和生物学书籍。值得注意的是,他借的书完全是虚构的。

入学摘要

官方版本:检察机关的报告指出,"科恩因企图逃避1946年、1947年和1948年的联邦所得税,以及6月9日联邦陪审团向美国财政部的代理人提供虚假陈述而被定罪。,1951年在洛杉矶。他的妻子也遭到类似的指控,但后来在一名非常重要的证人过早死亡后,美国检察官提出动议,被驳回。这对夫妇在审判中被证实的总金额约为156,000美元。他们还被发现在1945年没有缴纳大约5 000美元的所得税,但这些数字不是任何刑事指控的依据。

科恩说:"我被判犯有逃税罪。我在洛杉矶县监狱里呆了大约八个月,等待上诉。我曾在上诉时获得5,000美元的保证金,但美国地方检察官要求第九巡回法院的首席法官登曼将其交到整个法院的手中,但该裁决已经完成。我真的不明白完整的事情发生。我的律师告诉我,我被非法关押。我的保证金申请在第九巡回法院;首席大法官丹曼授予我保释金的法庭我今天刚到这个机构,我有点紧张,但我已经尽力解释一下。

在随后的声明中,科恩评论说,他无罪的指控。他解释说,他为每个商业企业聘请了一名总会计师和一名会计师,并给他们两个严格的命令,"不要与收入税有关"。他解释说,他与赌博客户安排投注一定数额的资金。例如,客户会表示他希望获得 25,000 美元。部分将投注在各种事件,交替收益和损失。在指定金额赢或输之前,任何货币不会交换手。他把他的信念归因于他的恶名。

评估摘要

迈耶·哈里斯·科恩,被称为米奇·科恩,1913年9月4日出生于纽约纽约市,与马克斯和范妮·科恩(Fanny Cohen)相识,他们来自俄罗斯基辅,是俄罗斯基辅人,据科恩说,他们来到纽约。他说,他的父亲除了美国版本之外,还有另外一个名字,但无法回忆起。他还不确定他的父母是否曾拿出公民证。据家人说,他的父亲在纽约经营一个鱼市场,直到1914年死于肺结核。

家人一致认为,他的父母在婚姻关系中非常幸福,非常勤劳和勤劳。然而,科恩说,他从来不知道他的父亲,他的母亲总是非常努力地工作,直到她最近几年,她的年龄和体弱不允许。父母的家被他的妹妹宝琳描述为非常虔诚,父母都严格按照信来守希伯来安息日。米奇父亲去世时还不到两岁。她回忆说,葬礼在家里举行,许多朋友都参加了哭闹仪式,这是教堂的习俗。以米奇为最小的五个孩子在场。据妻子和妹妹说,米奇没有过多谈论父亲的失去,但一直同情他的母亲。

科恩在描述他的童年时说,他被告知,他的母亲不得不借钱来洛杉矶后,他的父亲去世,因为她的健康。据了解,他的母亲和哥哥妹妹在这段时间里都遭受了严重的贫困。他记得其他的孩子比自己受过更好的教育,因为他的父亲为他们提供了教育。然而,科恩被剥夺了这一特权,这表明与其他人相比,他感觉自己处于弱势地位。在他的回忆中,他与他的妹妹莉莉安有关,认为当他的母亲在抵达洛杉矶后试图工作供养家人时,她不得不照顾他。他在五、六岁时就说过,他开始为现已绝迹的"记录"、"快报"和"考特"做论文。

据家人说,在米奇早年生活期间,他的母亲来到洛杉矶是因为她的健康。在大约五年的时间里,她紧张地生病,喉咙紧张,声音嘶哑,自然有些歇斯底里。据认为,她抵达后接受了一些临床治疗。波琳九岁时,小米奇被让她负责。

Pauline remembers him as an easy child to manage, that he was toilet trained early and that he walked and talked early. The home was kept immaculately clean with the example set by their mother. Both his wife and sister-in-law stated that he was fanatically clean about his person and everything about him, probably impressed by this early training. His relationship with his mother presented no complication of a prenatal nature and he was loved and wanted as were the other children. Due to economic stress, however, his mother did not have much time for Mickey during the impressionable age and her absence from him was a feeling of rejection and being unwanted. Emotional growth, without the presence of a father, contribute to a life without direction towards normal adjustment. Cohen, at this time, related that his next brother in age was about eleven years his senior. He remembers that he did not play or associate with any of his brothers during childhood and that he had to “fight his own way” particularly with the other young newsboys in the Boyle Heights district. 

这些年来,科恩夫人用大男孩的积蓄买了一家小杂货店,后来又买了一家餐馆,每天工作十四点十五个小时。米奇在这段时间里被送进学校,记得学校是一所"特殊学校",可能是一所弱智儿童学校,尽管这没有得到证实。他说,他在阅读或写作方面什么也没学,但在十二、十四个孩子的陪伴下,他画画,做工艺品,却把时间都用在了时间上,他形容这令人讨厌和讨厌。在这个时候,他为了表示骄傲,要求认可,描述了他自学拼写、写信和算术的努力。他不记得他在学校进步了多远。他的家人不记得他的年级,但他在十岁时自愿辞职,没有施加太大的压力来诱使他继续,除了宝琳,她表示,她试图给他留下一个事实,他是一个聪明的男孩,应该学习一些贸易。他与其他同学没有关系,但八、九岁时就摔断了腿,导致他辍学,可能妨碍他感到失落或被录取。他通过放弃来达到这种情况,可能是为了在社会和家庭状况方面制定一套精心制定的不安全模式。

科恩说,他辍学去工作,帮助他的母亲。通过一个新闻男孩小组,他开始对拳击感兴趣。他不记得这项活动是否是或是如何第一次导演的,但记得在很小的时候就参加了新闻男孩的展览。发展这种兴趣,可能是一个不承认的发泄儿童不安全和需要承认,他相关的是,他变得更加活跃在报童拳击卡,这反过来又补充了他的收入。通过父亲,其他孩子有早期的机会接受希伯来语学校的培训,姐妹们学习钢琴。米奇没有这个优势。他了解到对金钱的需求以及金钱带来的一切,被家庭状况的不利之处扭曲了。

大约在他离开学校的时候,其他孩子已经离开了家,他继续在索托和布鲁克林大道的拐角处卖报纸。从那个时候,直到十四岁左右,他在新闻男孩协会的拳击活动中以自己的名字,骄傲地回忆说,他经常打一场多达20美元的比赛,经常被放在拳击俱乐部的牌上。科恩说,他去克利夫兰通过新闻男孩协会,在那里他继续拳击。 

他的妹夫,哈里·科恩夫人,说,她和她的丈夫开始他时,他第一次来到克利夫兰,并努力帮助他。哈利当时是打架的推动者。虽然科恩与这种情况无关,但他曾在哈利的药店当过苏打混蛋,而拳击是业余的,后来是职业球员。他大部分时间都在体育馆里闲逛,体育馆里经常有锻炼的小狗、赌徒和衣架。

起初,经济是成功的,但萧条的到来很快使他处于机智的末端,并谋生。当时,由于没有教育,除了拳击之外,他缺乏其他技能,他的活动变得更加指向赌博,他声称,在拳击时,几乎每个"狗"都占据这个领域。他认同其他情况类似的拳击手,他们不知道他们的下一餐来自哪里。拳击时,据报道,他成为报纸宣传的倡导者,无论好坏。 

在此期间,他还捐钱给他的母亲,以支持她,以及她的乐趣。可以证实其他家庭关系是否亲密,或者他的兄弟哈里在他的活动中可能扮演了什么部分。我们可能想知道,他的家人通过接受他作为一个慷慨、慈善和自我牺牲的人来掩盖他的失当行为,这多少帮助他掩盖了事实。

科恩回忆说,他第一次遇到法律上的困难是在他与之有联系的其他失业拳击手的陪伴下。科恩在向美国缓刑官叙述这一事件时说,他养成了在某家餐馆闲逛的习惯,偶尔,经理会为他们撕下一张小餐券。制定了一个计划,经理将钱柜里的东西交给他们,声称他被抢劫了。他按照计划,被发现并供认不讳。科恩因缓刑两年,随后以约140.00美元赔偿。去芝加哥,科恩继续他的赌博活动,并成为进一步认同的后,与下世界。

His re-appearance on the Los Angeles scene took place in 1939. The prosecuting agency in reporting his activities and their development from this time reported that he had been the focal point of numerous police investigations. The most recurrent offenses appear to be brutal assaults on persons who did not agree with business methods he outlined. Public expenditures of funds in investigating and prosecuting Cohen (and his subordinates) over a period of thirteen years would total several hundred thousand dollars. Cohen’s record in the Los Angeles area from November, 1939, according to the prosecuting agency, showed that he was arrested by the Los Angeles Police at a bookmaking place he was operating and was charged with robbery. He was released on November 15, 1939. In May of 1940, he was arrested by the police for assault with a deadly weapon and for vagrancy. He was released with charges being dismissed on June 24, 1940. In November of the same year, he was again arrested by the police for further investigation and released on November 14th.

同年10月,科恩与拉文·韦弗·科恩结婚,别名是西蒙尼·金。记录显示,她十四岁时成为一名卖淫者,据洛杉矶警察局长称,她曾在檀香山从事卖淫活动,同时也是一名夫人。她在警察局拥有的Dictaphone录音中证明了她的粗俗语言,以及她在警察局官员面前的语言和行为,往往证实了她作为卖淫者的背景。

Cohen was again arrested by the Los Angeles Police Department in February of 1941 for bookmaking and on July 11th was convicted and received a six-month sentence and a $100 fine, serving his time at the Los Angeles County Honor Farm. Following his release, he was again arrested in September 1941 and held for questioning in connection with the attempted murder of Benny Gamson while under appeal bond on the former offense. In July, 1942, he was arrested by the Los Angeles Police for cutting telephone wires of a racing wire after beating the owner of the services. In February, 1943, he was permitted to plead guilty to a lesser misdemeanor and was fined $200, which he paid. During the next month, he was arrested by the police for shooting craps and fined five dollars. Arrested by the San Francisco police in September, 1944, and charged with vagrancy, he was permitted for forfeit of $1,000 bail and required to leave town. In May 1945, he was arrested in Los Angeles for shooting and killing Maxie Shaman, a competitive bookie, in a bookie joint owned by Cohen. He admitted the shooting, and though there were no direct witnesses, he alleged he acted in self-defense. A complaint was refused by the Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office and his gun was returned to him upon his release. 

Cohen bragged that it cost him $40,000 to escape this charge of murder. In November of the same year he was arrested by the Los Angeles police on a charge of robbery at a gambling place owned by him. The complaint was refused by the Los Angeles County District Attorney and he was released on November 19th. He was again arrested by the Los Angeles police in January, 1946 on a bookmaking charge, the case was dismissed on February 6th. Cohen, in May, 1946, was one of the suspects questioned and released in the unsolved homicide of Paul Gibbons, a bookie competitor and hoodlum. The investigation made by the Beverly Hills Police Department notes it was rumored at the time that Gibbons was the person who had broken into Cohen’s home on June 16, 1944. At the time, it was the underworld conversation that Cohen had obtained the services of Benny “Meatball” Gamson and George Levinson, two known police characters, to do away with Gibbons. Gamson’s car was placed at the scene of the crime and he was arrested in a complaint from the District Attorney’s Office, which was refused and he was released.

Levinson, also taken in custody, obtained an attorney to represent him but the police were unable to interview him for two days after the killing and then only in the presence of his attorney. Cohen was interrogated and he volunteered information that Gibbons was a stool pigeon for law enforcement officers and had double-crossed several members of the underworld. Cohen stated, “Gibbons was a snitch and was an employee of the Shannon brothers, also known as a Shaman, who Cohen had killed the preceding year. With Gibbons’ elimination, Gamson and Levinson acquired a reputation amongst the underworld as killers and it was reported that they had been given the assignment to eliminate Cohen by rival gamblers and that Cohen found out they had an apartment at a Los Angeles address. On October 3, 1946, both Gamson and Levinson were killed there. It was the general conversation amongst the underworld that Cohen had these gunmen “liquidated.” The Beverly Hills Police kept him under surveillance constantly, questioning him and his guests at frequent intervals as he returned home early in the mornings until he finally moved to West Los Angeles.

1947年6月,科恩在本杰明·布西·西格尔未破的杀人案中被审问并被释放,后来又接管了西格尔的部分利益。1948年8月,他再次作为嫌疑人之一接受讯问,并在他的保镖哈里·"胡基"罗斯曼的未破杀人案中获释,科恩团伙的两名成员阿尔伯特·斯奈德和詹姆斯·冒险在科恩的营业地受伤。罗斯曼在枪击案发生前,因吸毒而降级。科恩开始不信任他,在德尔马赛道上,罗斯曼因体重乱扔而遭到严厉殴打。枪击事件发生后,斯奈德离开小镇,最后一次被报道在匹兹堡。1949年3月,科恩和他的几个团伙被指控阴谋,用致命武器袭击,并在殴打皮尔逊先生时妨碍司法公正。1950年3月7日,经过审判,他被宣告无罪。1949年7月20日,尼迪·赫伯特在日落大道的一家餐馆门前被枪杀,六天后死亡。科恩的肩膀受伤了,很有可能是首要目标。总检察长办公室的调查员哈里·库珀和一名应召女郎迪·大卫也受伤。在罗斯曼被杀后,赫伯特接替了"胡基"罗斯曼在科恩的工作。6月22日,他在家中曾尝试过一次生活。普遍的看法是,科恩是枪击案的幕后黑手,试图给赫伯特一个教训,赫伯特在调查由警长办公室进行调查时,将柯林斯的子弹车藏在车库里。调查开始大约两周后,隐藏汽车的信息泄露了。

1949年8月初,科恩的两位同伙大卫·奥古尔和弗兰克·尼科利失踪了。他们因袭击一名与博彩有联系的当地商人而遭到科恩和其他五名流氓的起诉。奥古尔和尼科利的证词可能会对科恩和其他被告提出起诉。科恩在失踪后被无罪释放。事发时,他试图通过让他们参与此案来抹黑警察局,但没有成功。

1950年12月11日,科恩的律师塞缪尔·拉姆梅尔在洛杉矶的家中被猎枪打死。他当科恩的律师多年,但据了解,在遇害前,他们已有几个月的意见分歧。1950年2月6日,科恩在洛杉矶莫里诺大道513号的家中遭到炸弹袭击,这表明他活动受到暴力影响。附近居民向市议会请愿,要求科恩出于公共安全原因被逐出。

洛杉矶警方报告说,科恩的生前故事在1949年被《洛杉矶每日新闻》以连续形式报道,表明公众对他的案件非常感兴趣。他与有组织犯罪的联系多年来是显而易见的。他的联系人,很可能还有他在黑世界中的上司,包括纽约的弗兰克·科斯特洛、阿克伦的安东尼·米兰诺、黑手党成员、洛杉矶的杰克·德拉格纳、西海岸的黑手党头目以及许多其他有类似背景的人。他的团伙成员名单,至少有些成员,是由检察机关提供的。 

据检察机关称,他与美国各地许多最大的博彩专员处理过博彩交易,但享有者的美誉。他在洛杉矶的哈布达,作为他的活动的盲人,有一个防弹钢门,一个防弹轿车和名义的实际销售额。 

尽管科恩有职业黑帮的记录,他与一再的暴力行为有密切的联系,但科恩以帮助有需要的人和事业以及他对亲朋好友的慷慨而著称。他痴迷于对宣传和罚款生活的渴望,这表明他在因逃税被判刑后立即宣布。他计划写一个关于他生活的故事,这是一部电影的主题。

At this time, Cohen was trying to remove himself from his gambling and other illegal interests. He stated that this was brought home to him through his family. His family reports that within the last two years since meeting evangelist, Billy Graham, he showed a sincere interest in religion.

His personality, as summarized by his wife and sister, is one who takes pride in doing the job well, that he would rather take the beating and didn’t want to see another person being hurt in any way. If he witnessed crowd violence or a fight or group activity, he did not make a scene by being different or making an issue but rather keep hands off. He is not quick to report the errors of others. His wife cited that one time she was having dinner with him at a restaurant when the waiter spilled food on a new suit he was wearing. Rather than have the man lose his job, he had the suit cleaned. He was also charitable toward the needy, according to his wife who stated that he sent a considerable sum to Palestine, which church officials asked him to do. The family feels that he is not handicapped because of his lack of education or that Cohen himself feels handicapped because of it but that he studied privately to better himself. They considered his personality winning, that he makes a good salesman and that everybody likes him because he is kind and considerate. He wanted most to be liked by others.

该机构报告说,他很幸运,他有一个家庭支持他,并在获释后帮助他。妻子得到亲戚的协助,回到妹妹宝琳和她的丈夫提供的公寓。该机构报告说,家具是精心设计的,但提供了一个家的氛围。

科恩的妻子在销售领域有自己的计划,并渴望开始工作,以便她的丈夫可以继续他被释放后。她对他在监禁期间学习很感兴趣,他应该有工作任务,包括记账,因为他在这一领域有很多贡献。可能的计划包括重返服装业或科恩协助比利·格雷厄姆从事福音工作。有人向该机构提到,科恩与他的兄弟哈里关系密切,哈利正计划搬到芝加哥。科恩的枪伤给他带来了相当大的麻烦,他在洛杉矶的齐勒医生的照顾下正在接受治疗。他的手臂偶尔因神经损伤而麻木。

科恩收到了家人的鼓励信和少量的粉丝信,但由于他的"事业"的古怪性质,这些信件被退回。科恩害怕,因为他的生活尝试,并努力使自己留在后台。在设法避免冒犯任何人的同时,他很难避开别人的注意。 

生活之后 Alcatraz

科恩于1963年1月被转移到亚特兰大的美国联邦监狱,就在关闭前几个月 Alcatraz .在亚特兰大联邦监狱期间,另一名囚犯试图用铅管杀死科恩,而科恩正在接受无线电和电视维修培训。

1963年8月14日,狱友Burl Estes McDonald进入电子维修训练设施,挥舞着一根三英尺长的铁管,从后面溜上,把毫无戒备的米奇吓到昏迷中。科恩头部严重受伤,颅骨碎片碎片不得不从脑组织中取出,脑组织出血。米奇接受了广泛的神经外科手术,在昏迷两周后,医生插入了一块钢板,以取代后颅骨区域的碎骨碎片。

1972年,科恩从亚特兰大联邦监狱获释,在那里他公开反对监狱虐待。他被误诊为溃疡,原来是胃癌。手术后,他继续在美国巡回演出,包括在电视上露面,一次与拉姆齐克拉克。虽然他在残酷的攻击中幸存下来,没有任何已知的精神缺陷,但他将在余生中完全残疾,并在孤独中度过最后几年。米奇·科恩于1976年在睡梦中去世,并安葬在加州卡尔弗市的希尔赛德纪念公园公墓。

"内容由Michael Esslinger提供 - www.alcatrazhistory.com Mickey Cohen在"

 

 

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