Hakiki aina ya mnyama wa huduma unaoruhusiwa na National Park Service

Ufafanuzi na sera
U.S. Department of Justice
Civil Rights Division
Disability Rights Section

American’s With Disabilities Act
2010 Revised Requirements

The Department of Justice published revised final regulations implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for title II (State and local government services) and title III (public accommodations and commercial facilities) on September 15, 2010, in the Federal Register. These requirements, or rules, clarify and refine issues that have arisen over the past 20 years and contain new, and updated, requirements, including the 2010 Standards for Accessible Design (2010 Standards).
Service Animals Overview
This publication provides guidance on the term “service animal” and the service animal provisions in the Department’s revised regulations.

  • Kuanzia Machi 15, 2011, mbwa tu ni kutambuliwa kama wanyama wa huduma chini ya majina ya II na III ya ADA.
  • Mnyama wa huduma ni mbwa ambaye ni pamoja na mafunzo ya kufanya kazi au kufanya kazi kwa mtu mwenye ulemavu.
  • Kwa ujumla, jina la II na hatimiliki ni vyombo vya III lazima wawache wanyama wa huduma ili kuongozana na watu wenye ulemavu katika maeneo yote ambako wananchi wanaruhusiwa kwenda.

How “Service Animal” Is Defined
Service animals are defined as dogs that are individually trained to do work or perform tasks for people with disabilities. Examples of such work or tasks include guiding people who are blind, alerting people who are deaf, pulling a wheelchair, alerting and protecting a person who is having a seizure, reminding a person with mental illness to take prescribed medications, calming a person with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) during an anxiety attack, or performing other duties. Service animals are working animals, not pets. The work or task a dog has been trained to provide must be directly related to the person’s disability. Dogs whose sole function is to provide comfort or emotional support do not qualify as service animals under the ADA.

Ufafanuzi huu haiathiri au kupunguza ufafanuzi mpana wa "msaada wa wanyama" chini ya sheria ya makazi ya haki au ufafanuzi mpana wa "mnyama wa huduma" chini ya sheria ya Access ya carrier ya Air.

Baadhi ya nchi na sheria za mitaa pia kufafanua mnyama wa huduma zaidi kwa upana kuliko ADA. Taarifa kuhusu sheria kama hizo zinaweza kupatikana kutoka ofisi hiyo ya mwanasheria mkuu wa serikali.

Chini ya ADA, jimbo na serikali za mitaa, mashirika na asasi za faida ambazo zinahudumia umma kwa ujumla lazima iwaruhusu wanyama wa huduma ili kuongozana na watu wenye ulemavu katika maeneo yote ya kituo hicho ambako umma unaruhusiwa kwenda. Kwa mfano, katika hospitali itakuwa sahihi kuwatenga wanyama wa huduma kutoka maeneo kama vile vyumba vya mgonjwa, kliniki, mkahawa, au vyumba vya uchunguzi. Hata hivyo, inaweza kuwa sahihi kuwatenga mnyama wa huduma kutoka vyumba vya uendeshaji au maeneo ya kuchoma ambapo uwepo wa wanyama unaweza kuhatarisha mazingira ya kuzaa.

Chini ya ADA, wanyama wa huduma wanapaswa kuwa wamefungwa, leashed, au tethered, isipokuwa vifaa hivi vilivyo na kazi ya mnyama wa huduma au ulemavu wa mtu huzuia kutumia vifaa hivi. Katika hali hiyo, mtu binafsi lazima kudumisha udhibiti wa mnyama kwa njia ya sauti, ishara, au udhibiti mwingine ufanisi.

Wakati si wazi nini huduma ya mnyama hutoa, maswali machache tu ni kuruhusiwa. Wafanyakazi wanaweza kuuliza maswali mawili: (1) ni mbwa mnyama wa huduma anahitajika kwa sababu ya ulemavu, na (2) nini kazi au kazi ina mbwa imekuwa mafunzo ya kufanya. Wafanyakazi hawawezi kuuliza kuhusu ulemavu wa mtu, kuhitaji stakabadhi za tiba, zinahitaji kadi maalum ya utambulisho au hati ya mafunzo ya mbwa, au kuuliza kwamba mbwa huonyesha uwezo wake wa kufanya kazi au kazi.

  • Allergy na hofu ya mbwa sio sababu halali za kukataa ufikiaji au kukataa huduma kwa watu wanaotumia wanyama wa huduma. Wakati mtu ambaye ni mzio wa mbwa dander na mtu anayetumia mnyama wa huduma lazima atumie muda katika chumba au kituo kimoja, kwa mfano, katika darasa la shule au makazi ya makazi, wote wanapaswa kushughulikiwa kwa kuwapa, kama inawezekana , kwa maeneo mbalimbali ndani ya chumba au vyumba mbalimbali katika kituo.
  • Mtu mwenye ulemavu hawezi kuulizwa kuondoa mnyama wake wa huduma kutoka kwenye majengo isipokuwa: (1) mbwa huyo yuko nje ya udhibiti na kishika si kuchukua hatua bora ya kudhibiti hilo au (2) mbwa si kuvunjwa nyumbani. Wakati kuna sababu halali ya kuuliza kwamba mnyama wa huduma kuondolewa, wafanyakazi lazima kutoa mtu na ulemavu fursa ya kupata bidhaa au huduma bila uwepo wa wanyama.

Where Service Animals Are Allowed
Inquiries, Exclusions, Charges, and Other Specific Rules Related to Service Animals
Revised ADA Requirements: Service Animals

Majengo yanayouza au kutayarisha chakula lazima kuwaruhusu wanyama wa huduma katika maeneo ya umma hata kama hali au misimbo ya afya ya eneo kuzuia wanyama kwenye majengo.

  • Watu wenye ulemavu ambao wanatumia wanyama wa huduma hawawezi kutengwa na walinzi wengine, kutibiwa vibaya zaidi kuliko walinzi wengine, au ada ya malipo ambayo si kushtakiwa kwa walinzi wengine bila ya wanyama. Aidha, kama biashara inahitaji amana au ada ya kulipwa na walinzi na PETS, ni lazima kitachoondoa malipo kwa wanyama huduma.
  • Kama biashara kama vile hoteli kawaida gharama wageni kwa ajili ya uharibifu wao kusababisha, mteja na ulemavu inaweza pia kushtakiwa kwa ajili ya uharibifu unasababishwa na mwenyewe au mnyama wa huduma yake.
  • Wafanyakazi haihitajiki kutoa huduma au chakula kwa ajili ya mnyama wa huduma.

Miniature Horses
In addition to the provisions about service dogs, the Department’s revised ADA regulations have a new, separate provision about miniature horses that have been individually trained to do work or perform tasks for people with disabilities. (Miniature horses generally range in height from 24 inches to 34 inches measured to the shoulders and generally weigh between 70 and 100 pounds.) Entities covered by the ADA must modify their policies to permit miniature horses where reasonable. The regulations set out four assessment factors to assist entities in determining whether miniature horses can be accommodated in their facility. The assessment factors are (1) whether the miniature horse is housebroken; (2) whether the miniature horse is under the owner’s control; (3) whether the facility can accommodate the miniature horse’s type, size, and weight; and (4) whether the miniature horse’s presence will not compromise legitimate safety requirements necessary for safe operation of the facility.

ADA Information Line:

800.514.0301 (Voice) and 800.514.0383 (TTY)
24 hours a day to order publications by mail.
M-W, F 9:30AM – 5:30PM, Th 12:30PM – 5:30PM (Eastern Time) to speak with an ADA Specialist. All calls are confidential with the U.S. Department of Justice

For more information about the ADA, please visit ADA Service Animals or call the toll-free number. To receive e-mail notifications when new ADA information is available, visit the ADA website’s home page and click the link near the top of the middle column.